Back to “References”

This is a the bibliography for the book “The Wisdom of Whores”. It is arranged alphabetically by first cited author. We’ve done as much as we can to provide links to full text (though some papers come from a pre-electronic age). Most are in PDF formats. If you are concerned about copyright, let us know, and we’ll remove your paper and refer readers to you for the full text version. If you know of a resource not listed here, please let us know via the Contact page.

Click on a letter below to jump to that section of the alphabetical listing.


(2003). United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act. 22 USC 7601.

Adelekan, M. L. and R. A. Lawal (2006). “Drug use and HIV infection in Nigeria. A review of recent findings.” African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies 5(2).

Adu-Oppong, A., R. M. Grimes, M. W. Ross, et al. (2007). “Social and behavioral determinants of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers in Ghana.” AIDS Educ Prev 19(2): 160-72.

Allen, S., J. Tice, P. Van de Perre, et al. (1992). Effect of serotesting with counselling on condom use and seroconversion among HIV discordant couples in Africa.” Bmj 304(6842): 1605-9.

American Medical Association (1997). Report 8 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-97). Chicago, American Medical Association.

Annan, K. (2001). Address made by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to the African Summit on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Other Infectious Diseases in Abuja, Nigeria. Abuja.

Anthony, J., L. Warner; and R. Kessler (1994). “Comparative Epidemiology of Dependence on Tobacco, Alcohol, Controlled Substances and Inhalants.” (.pdf 251k) Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 3(3): 244 – 268.

Aral, S. O., N. S. Padian and K. K. Holmes (2005). “Advances in multilevel approaches to understanding the epidemiology and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV: an overview.” J Infect Dis 191 Suppl 1: S1-6.

Attaran, A. and J. Sachs (2001). “Defining and refining international donor support for combating the AIDS pandemic.” (.pdf 88k) Lancet 357(9249): 57-61.

Auvert, B., A. Buve, B. Ferry, et al. (2001a). “Ecological and individual level analysis of risk factors for HIV infection in four urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa with different levels of HIV infection.” Aids 15 Suppl 4: S15-30. (.pdf)

Auvert, B., A. Buve, E. Lagarde, et al. (2001b). “Male circumcision and HIV infection in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa.” Aids 15 Suppl 4: S31-40. (.pdf)

Auvert, B., D. Taljaard, E. Lagarde, et al. (2005). “Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial.” PLoS Med 2(11): e298.


Bailey, R. C., S. Moses, C. B. Parker, et al. (2007). “Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial.” Lancet 369(9562): 643-56.

Baldwin, P. (2005). Disease and Democracy. The Industiralized world faces AIDS. Berkley CA, University of California Press.

Barnett, T. and A. Whiteside (2006). AIDS in the Twenty-First Century: Disease and Globalization (Second edition) London, Palgrave Macmillan.

Bastos, F. I. and S. A. Strathdee (2000). “Evaluating effectiveness of syringe exchange programmes: current issues and future prospects.” Soc Sci Med 51(12): 1771-82.

Beyrer, C., J. Jittiwutikarn, W. Teokul, et al. (2003). “Drug use, increasing incarceration rates, and prison-associated HIV risks in Thailand.” AIDS Behav 7(2): 153-61.

Blacker, J. and B. Zaba (1997). “HIV prevalence and the life-time risk of dying from AIDS.” Health Transition Review 7(Supplement 2). (.pdf)

Blower, S. M., H. B. Gershengorn and R. M. Grant (2000). “A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco.” Science 287(5453): 650-4. (.pdf)

Bluthenthal, R. N., A. H. Kral, L. Gee, et al. (2000). “The effect of syringe exchange use on high-risk injection drug users: a cohort study.” Aids 14(5): 605-11. (.pdf)

Bourlet, T., C. Cazorla, P. Berthelot, et al. (2001). “Compartmentalization of HIV-1 according to antiretroviral therapy: viral loads are correlated in blood and semen but poorly in blood and saliva.” Aids 15(2): 284-5.

Brooks, J. T., K. E. Robbins, A. S. Youngpairoj, et al. (2006). “Molecular analysis of HIV strains from a cluster of worker infections in the adult film industry, Los Angeles 2004.” Aids 20(6): 923-8.

Brooner, R., M. Kidorf, V. King, et al. (1998). “Drug abuse treatment success among needle exchange participants.” Public Health Rep 113 Suppl 1: 129-39. (.pdf)

Brown, P. (1992). “World AIDS Programme “Lacks Vision”” New Scientist 1806: 14.

Bruckner, H. and P. Bearman (2005). “After the promise: the STD consequences of adolescent virginity pledges.” J Adolesc Health 36(4): 271-8.

Bruckner, H., A. Martin and P. S. Bearman (2004). “Ambivalence and pregnancy: adolescents’ attitudes, contraceptive use and pregnancy.” Perspect Sex Reprod Health 36(6): 248-57.

Brugal, M. T., A. Domingo-Salvany, R. Puig, et al. (2005). “Evaluating the impact of methadone maintenance programmes on mortality due to overdose and aids in a cohort of heroin users in Spain.” Addiction 100(7): 981-9.

Buavirat, A., K. Page-Shafer, G. J. van Griensven, et al. (2003). “Risk of prevalent HIV infection associated with incarceration among injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand: case-control study.” Bmj 326(7384): 308.

Buchacz, K., P. Patel, M. Taylor, et al. (2004). “Syphilis increases HIV viral load and decreases CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients with new syphilis infections.” Aids 18(15): 2075-9.

Buning, E. C., R. A. Coutinho, G. H. van Brussel, et al. (1986). “Preventing AIDS in drug addicts in Amsterdam.” Lancet 1(8495): 1435.

Burton, A. H. and T. E. Mertens (1998). “Provisional country estimates of prevalent adult human immunodeficiency virus infections as of end 1994: a description of the methods.” Int J Epidemiol 27(1): 101-7.

Buve, A., M. Carael, R. J. Hayes, et al. (2001). “Multicentre study on factors determining differences in rate of spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: methods and prevalence of HIV infection.” Aids 15 Suppl 4: S5-14.


Carael, M. (1995). Sexual behaviour. Sexual Behaviour and AIDS in the Developing World. J. Cleland and B. Ferry. London, Taylor & Francis: 75-123.

Carael, M. and A. Buve. (1999). “Differences in HIV spread in four sub-Saharan African cities: summary of the multi-site study.” Retrieved 19 September, 1999, from R:/M301-400/m000398.pdf.More recent version here.

Carpenter, L. M., A. Kamali, A. Ruberantwari, et al. (1999). “Rates of HIV-1 transmission within marriage in rural Uganda in relation to the HIV sero-status of the partners.” Aids 13(9): 1083-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Syringe Exchange Programs. Atlanta, CDC.

Chakraborty, H., P. K. Sen, R. W. Helms, et al. (2001). “Viral burden in genital secretions determines male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV-1: a probabilistic empiric model.” Aids 15(5): 621-7.

Chin, J. (2007). The AIDS Pandemic: The Collision of Epidemiology with Political Correctness: 2007. Oxford, Radcliffe Publishing.

Chin, J. and J. Mann (1989). “Global surveillance and forecasting of AIDS.” Bulletin Of The World Health Organization 67(1): 1-7.

China UK AIDS Prevention Project (2003). Situational Analysis of Sexual Health in Sichuan and Yunnan. Beijing, China UK.

Choopanya, K., D. C. Des Jarlais, S. Vanichseni, et al. (2002). “Incarceration and risk for HIV infection among injection drug users in Bangkok.” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29(1): 86-94.

Civic, D. and D. Wilson (1996). “Dry sex in Zimbabwe and implications for condom use.” Soc Sci Med 42(1): 91-8.

Cleland, J. and B. Ferry (1995). Sexual Behavior and AIDS in the Developing World (Complete book). London, Taylor & Francis.

Cohen, S. (2005). “Ominous Convergeance: Sex Trafficking, Prostitution and International Family Planning.” The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy(February 2005).

Corey, L., A. Wald, C. L. Celum, et al. (2004). “The effects of herpes simplex virus-2 on HIV-1 acquisition and transmission: a review of two overlapping epidemics.” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 35(5): 435-45.


Davies, A. G., R. M. Cormack and A. M. Richardson (1999). “Estimation of injecting drug users in the City of Edinburgh, Scotland, and number infected with human immunodeficiency virus.” Int J Epidemiol 28(1): 117-21.

Davis, K. R. and S. C. Weller (1999). “The effectiveness of condoms in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV.” Fam Plann Perspect 31(6): 272-9.

De Gruttola, V., G. R. d. Seage, K. H. Mayer, et al. (1989). “Infectiousness of HIV between male homosexual partners.” J Clin Epidemiol 42(9): 849-856.

de Vincenzi, I. (1994). “A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV [see comments].” N Engl J Med 331(6): 341-6. (.pdf)

de Zoysa, I., W. Rojanapithayakorn, J. Smarajit, et al. (2005). Review of the 100% Targeted Condom Promotion Programme in Myanmar. Yangon, World Health Organisation.

Des Jarlais, D. C., H. Hagan, S. R. Friedman, et al. (1995). “Maintaining low HIV seroprevalence in populations of injecting drug users [see comments].” Jama 274(15): 1226-31. (.pdf)

Des Jarlais, D. C., T. Perlis, K. Arasteh, et al. (2005). “HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, 1990 to 2002: use of serologic test algorithm to assess expansion of HIV prevention services.”(.pdf) Am J Public Health 95(8): 1439-44.

Deschamps, M. M., J. W. Pape, A. Hafner, et al. (1996). “Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Haiti.” Ann Intern Med 125(4): 324-30.

Dilley, J. W., W. J. Woods, J. Sabatino, et al. (2003). “Availability of combination therapy for HIV: effects on sexual risk taking in a sample of high-risk gay and bisexual men.” AIDS Care 15(1): 27-37.

Doherty, M. C., B. Junge, P. Rathouz, et al. (2000). “The effect of a needle exchange program on numbers of discarded needles: a 2-year follow-up.” Am J Public Health 90(6): 936-9.

Dolan, K., W. Hall and A. Wodak (1996). “Methadone maintenance reduces injecting in prison.” Bmj 312(7039): 1162.

Dolan, K., S. Rutter and A. D. Wodak (2003a). “Prison-based syringe exchange programmes: a review of international research and development.” Addiction 98(2): 153-8.

Dolan, K. A., J. Shearer, M. MacDonald, et al. (2003b). “A randomised controlled trial of methadone maintenance treatment versus wait list control in an Australian prison system.” Drug Alcohol Depend 72(1): 59-65.

Dolan, K. A., J. Shearer, B. White, et al. (2005). “Four-year follow-up of imprisoned male heroin users and methadone treatment: mortality, re-incarceration and hepatitis C infection.” Addiction 100(6): 820-8.

Doll, R. and A. B. Hill (1950). “Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report.” Br Med J 2(4682): 739-48.

Drucker, E., P. Lurie, A. Wodak, et al. (1998). “Measuring harm reduction: The effects of needle and syringe exchange programs and methadone maintenance on the ecology of HIV.” Aids 12(Suppl A): S217-30.

Dublin, S., P. S. Rosenberg and J. J. Goedert (1992). “Patterns and predictors of high-risk sexual behavior in female partners of HIV-infected men with hemophilia.” Aids 6(5): 475-82.

Dukers, N. H., J. Spaargaren, R. B. Geskus, et al. (2002). “HIV incidence on the increase among homosexual men attending an Amsterdam sexually transmitted disease clinic: using a novel approach for detecting recent infections.” Aids 16(10): F19-24.


Elford, J., G. Bolding and L. Sherr (2002). “High-risk sexual behaviour increases among London gay men between 1998 and 2001: what is the role of HIV optimism?” Aids 16(11): 1537-44.

Elford, J., S. Leaity, F. Lampe, et al. (2001). “Incidence of HIV infection among gay men in a London HIV testing clinic, 1997-1998.” AIDS 15(5): 650-653.

Elmendorf, E., E. R. Jensen and E. Pisani (2004). Evaluation of World Bank Assistance In Responding to the AIDS Epidemic: Indonesia Case Study. (.pdf) Washington DC, World Bank.

Elmer, L. (2001). HIV/AIDS Intervention Data on Commercial Sex Workers in Vietnam: A Review of Recent Research Findings: ii-v, 1-20.

Epstein, H. (2007). “>The Invisible Cure: AIDS in Africa. New York, Farrar, Straus & Giroux.


Family Health International (2000). Behavioral surveillance surveys (BSS): guidelines for repeated behavioral surveys in populations at risk of HIV. Arlington VA, Family Health International: 358.

Family Health International (2002). Estimating the Size of Populations at Risk for HIV: Issues and Methods, A joint UNAIDS/IMPACT/FHI workshop: Report and Conclusions: 71. (.pdf)

Family Health International (2006). First things first: Guidelines on management and coding of behavioural surveillance data. Bangkok, Family Health International.

Fleming, D. T. and J. N. Wasserheit (1999). “From epidemiological synergy to public health policy and practice: The contribution of other sexually transmitted diseases to sexual transmission of HIV infection.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 75(3): 3-17.

Food and Agriculture Organization (2005). Impact of HIV/AIDS on fishing communities: Policies to Support Livelihoods, Rural Development and Public Health. Rome, FAO.

Frischer, M., S. T. Green, D. J. Goldberg, et al. (1992). “Estimates of HIV infection among injecting drug users in Glasgow, 1985-1990.” Aids 6(11): 1371-5.


Galvin, S. R. and M. S. Cohen (2004). “The role of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV transmission.” Nat Rev Microbiol 2(1): 33-42.

Glantz, S. A., John Slade, Lisa A. Bero, et al., Eds. (1996). The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Global HIV Prevention Working Group (2004). HIV Prevention in an Era of Expanded Treatment. Seattle Wa, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Kaiser Family Foundation.

Gray, R. H., G. Kigozi, D. Serwadda, et al. (2007). “Male circumcision for HIV prevention in men in Rakai, Uganda: a randomised trial.” Lancet 369(9562): 657-66.

Gray, R. H., M. J. Wawer, R. Brookmeyer, et al. (2001). “Probability of HIV-1 transmission per coital act in monogamous, heterosexual, HIV-1-discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda.” Lancet 357(9263): 1149-53.

Green, E. C., D. T. Halperin, V. Nantulya, et al. (2006). “Uganda’s HIV prevention success: the role of sexual behavior change and the national response.” AIDS Behav 10(4): 335-46; discussion 347-50.

Gregson, S., C. A. Nyamukapa, G. P. Garnett, et al. (2002). “Sexual mixing patterns and sex-differentials in teenage exposure to HIV infection in rural Zimbabwe.” Lancet 359(9321): 1896-903.

Griesbach, D., D. Abdulrahim, D. Gordon, et al. (2006). Needle Exchange Provision in Scotland: A Report of the National Needle Exchange Survey, Scottish Executive.


Hagan, H., D. C. Jarlais, S. R. Friedman, et al. (1995). “Reduced risk of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among injection drug users in the Tacoma syringe exchange program [see comments]. Am J Public Health 85(11): 1531-7.

Hagan, H., J. P. McGough, H. Thiede, et al. (1999). “Syringe exchange and risk of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses.” Am J Epidemiol 149(3): 203-13.

Halperin, D. T. (1999). “Dry sex practices and HIV infection in the Dominican Republic and Haiti.” Sex Transm Infect 75(6): 445-6.

Halperin, D. T. (2006). “The controversy over fear arousal in AIDS prevention and lessons from Uganda.” J Health Commun 11(3): 266-7.

Halperin, D. T. and H. Epstein (2004). “Concurrent sexual partnerships help to explain Africa’s high HIV prevalence: implications for prevention.” Lancet 364(9428): 4-6.

Hamilton, W. T. and D. Kessler (2004). “BMJ papers could include honesty box for research warts.” BMJ 328(1320): 7451.

Hanenberg, R. and W. Rojanapithayakorn (1998). “Changes in prostitution and the AIDS epidemic in Thailand.” AIDS Care 10(1): 69-79.

Hanenberg, R. S., W. Rojanapithayakorn, P. Kunasol, et al. (1994). “Impact of Thailand’s HIV-control programme as indicated by the decline of sexually transmitted diseases.” Lancet 344(8917): 243-5.

Hartel, D. M. and E. E. Schoenbaum (1998). “Methadone treatment protects against HIV infection: two decades of experience in the Bronx, New York City.” Public Health Rep 113 Suppl 1: 107-15.

Haugen, G. and G. Hunter (2005). Terrify No More. Nashville, TN, W Publishing Group.

Health Canada (1997). Canada’s Alcohol and Other Drug Survey, 1994. Ottawa, Health Canada. (.pdf)

Heimer, R. (1998). “Can syringe exchange serve as a conduit to substance abuse treatment?” J Subst Abuse Treat 15(3): 183-91.

Heimer, R., H. Catania, R. G. Newman, et al. (2006). “Methadone maintenance in prison: evaluation of a pilot program in Puerto Rico.” Drug Alcohol Depend 83(2): 122-9.

Heng, S., B. Hor and P. Gorbach (2001). Cambodian household male survey (BSS IV 2000). Phnom penh, National Centre for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs (NCHADS). (.pdf)

Hogg, R. S., A. E. Weber, K. Chan, et al. (2001). “Increasing incidence of HIV infections among young gay and bisexual men in Vancouver.” Aids 15(10): 1321-2.

Hu, D. J., S. Subbarao, S. Vanichseni, et al. (2002). “Higher viral loads and other risk factors associated with HIV-1 seroconversion during a period of high incidence among injection drug users in Bangkok.” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 30(2): 240-7. (.pdf)

Huffam, S., B. J. Currie, P. Knibbs, et al. (2002). “HIV-1 infection in foreign nationals working in East Timor.” Lancet 360(9330): 416.

Hull, T., E. Sulistyaningsih and G. Jones (1997). Pelacuran di Indonesia. Jakarta, Sinar Harapan.

Human Rights Watch (2004). Not enough graves: The war on drugs, HIV/AIDS and the violation of Human Rights. New York, Human Rights Watch.

Hunter, S. (2003). Black Death: AIDS in Africa. London, Palgrave Macmillan.

Hurley, S. F., D. J. Jolley and J. M. Kaldor (1997). “Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention of HIV infection.” Lancet 349(9068): 1797-800.


Indonesia Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environmental Health (2003). National Estimates of Adult HIV Infection, Indonesia 2002. Jakarta, Ministry of Health.

Institute of Medicine (2001). No Time to Lose: Getting More from HIV Prevention. Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences.

Institute of Medicine (2006). Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High Risk Countries: An Assessment of the Evidence. Washington DC, National Academy of Sciences.


Jalal, F., H. M. Abednego, T. Sadjimin, et al. (1994). “HIV and AIDS in Indonesia.” Aids 8(Suppl 2): S91-4.


Kaiser Family Foundation, U. (2007). Financing the response to AIDS in low- and middleincome countries: International assistance from the G8, European Commission and other donor Governments, 2006. Geneva. (.pdf)

Kamenga, M., R. W. Ryder, M. Jingu, et al. (1991). “Evidence of marked sexual behavior change associated with low HIV-1 seroconversion in 149 married couples with discordant HIV-1 serostatus: Experience at an HIV counselling center in Zaire.” Aids 5(1): 61-7.

Kellogg, T. A., W. McFarland and M. H. Katz (1999). “Recent increases in incidence of seroconversion among repeat anonymous testers in San Francisco.” AIDS 13(16): 2302-2304.

Koop, C. (1988). Individual freedom and the public interest. First International Conference on the Global Impact of AIDS, London, March 8-10, 1988, Alan R. Liss.

Kral, A. H., R. N. Bluthenthal, J. Lorvick, et al. (2001). “Sexual transmission of HIV-1 among injection drug users in San Francisco, USA: risk-factor analysis.” Lancet 357(9266): 1397-401.

Kumalawati, J., N. Sukartini and E. Donegan (2002). Report on HIV test kit Evaluation for Government of Indonesia. Jakarta, World Health Organisation, Family Health International.


Langendam, M. W., G. H. van Brussel, R. A. Coutinho, et al. (2001). “The impact of harm-reduction-based methadone treatment on mortality among heroin users.” Am J Public Health 91(5): 774-80.

Liljeros, F., C. R. Edling, H. E. Stanley, et al. (2003). “Social networks (communication arising): Sexual contacts and epidemic thresholds.” Nature 423(6940): 606.

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Lu, F., N. Wang, Z. Wu, et al. (2006). “Estimating the number of people at risk for and living with HIV in China in 2005: methods and results.” Sex Transm Infect 82 Suppl 3: iii87-91.

Lubis, I., J. Master, A. Munif, et al. (1997). “Second report of AIDS related attitudes and sexual practices of the Jakarta WARIA (male transvestites) in 1995.” Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28(3): 525-9.

Lurie, P. and A. Reingold, Eds. (1993). The public health impact of needle exchange programs in the United States and abroad,Vol. 1. Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (.pdf)


MacDonald, M., M. Law, J. Kaldor, et al. (2003). “Effectiveness of needle and syringe programmes for preventing HIV transmission.” International Journal of Drug Policy 14(5-6): 353-357.

Martin, G. (2007). AIDS Expenditure in the Asia Region — some preliminary findings. Draft report, Background paper for the Comission on AIDS in Asia.

Martin, G. H. (2005). Technical Note: Tracking HIV/AIDS Resources in Cambodia. Washington D.C, Policy Project, Futures Group.

Marx, M. A., B. Crape, R. S. Brookmeyer, et al. (2000). “Trends in crime and the introduction of a needle exchange program.” Am J Public Health 90(12): 1933-6.

McCoy, C. B., J. E. Rivers, H. V. McCoy, et al. (1994). “Compliance to bleach disinfection protocols among injecting drug users in Miami.” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 7(7): 773-6.

McFarland, W. and P. DeCarlo. (2003). “What is the effect of HIV treatment on HIV prevention?” Retrieved [2/2/2004 10:17:00 AM], 2004, from R:/OD1401-1500/od01412.pdf.

Medecins Sans Frontiers (2003). Untangling the web of price reductions:a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries. Geneva, Medecins Sans Frontiers, Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines.

Mendelson, J. H. and N. K. Mello (1982). “Hormones and psycho-sexual development in young men following chronic heroin use.” Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 4(4): 441-5.

Merson, M. H. (2006). “The HIV-AIDS pandemic at 25–the global response.” N Engl J Med 354(23): 2414-7.

Mills, S., P. Benjarattanaporn, A. Bennett, et al. (1997). “HIV risk behavioral surveillance in Bangkok, Thailand: sexual behavior trends among eight population groups.” Aids 11 Suppl 1: S43-51. Full report of study results here.

Mills, S., T. Saidel, A. Bennett, et al. (1998). “HIV risk behavioral surveillance: a methodology for monitoring behavioral trends.” Aids 12 Suppl 2: S37-46. Full methodological manual for behavioural surveillance surveys (BSS) here.

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Mishra, V., M. Vaessen, S. Bignami-Van Assche, et al. (2007). “Why Do So Many HIV-Discordant Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa Have Female Partners Infected, Not Male Partners?” Submitted.

Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic (2004). AIDS in Asia: Face the Facts. Bangkok, Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic.

Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic Network (MAP) (2001). The status and trends of the HIV/AIDS epidemics in Asia and the Pacific. Melbourne, Australia: 40 pages. (.pdf)

Morris, M. and M. Kretzschmar (1997). “Concurrent partnerships and the spread of HIV.” Aids 11(5): 641-8.


National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research (2006). HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia, Annual Surveillance Report 2006. Sydney, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales. (.pdf)

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National Institutes of Health (1997). Interventions to prevent HIV risk behaviors. Bethesda, MD, National Institutes of Health.

National Intelligence Council (2000). The Global Infectious Disease Threat and Its Implications for the United States. Langley VA, National Intelligence Council.

National Research Council (1995). Needle Exchange Programs Reduce HIV Transmission among People Who Inject Illegal Drugs. Washington.

Neal, J. J., H. Sopheab, C. V, et al. (2004). Integrated HIV, STD, and Behavioral Survey among Female Sentinel Groups, Banteay Meanchey Province, Cambodia, 2003. Abtrsact submitted to 15th International AIDS Conference, Bangkok.

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Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress (1995). The Effectiveness of AIDS Prevention Efforts. Washington DC, US Government Printing Office.

Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator (2004). The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. U.S. Five-Year Global HIVAIDS Strategy. Washington DC, Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator.

Okunlola, M. A., I. O. Morhason-Bello, K. M. Owonikoko, et al. (2006). “Female condom awareness, use and concerns among Nigerian female undergraduates.” J Obstet Gynaecol 26(4): 353-6.


Padian, N. S., T. R. O’Brien, Y. Chang, et al. (1993). “Prevention of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through couple counseling.” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 6(9): 1043-8.

Page-Shafer, K., C. H. Shiboski, D. H. Osmond, et al. (2002). “Risk of HIV infection attributable to oral sex among men who have sex with men and in the population of men who have sex with men.” Aids 16(17): 2350-2.

Palepu, A., S. A. Strathdee, R. S. Hogg, et al. (1999). “The social determinants of emergency department and hospital use by injection drug users in Canada.” J Urban Health 76(4): 409-18.

Palepu, A., M. W. Tyndall, R. Joy, et al. (2006). “Antiretroviral adherence and HIV treatment outcomes among HIV/HCV co-infected injection drug users: the role of methadone maintenance therapy.” Drug Alcohol Depend 84(2): 188-94.

Parkhurst, J. O. (2002). “The Ugandan success story? Evidence and claims of HIV-1 prevention.” Lancet 360(9326): 78-80.

Phoolcharoen, W., K. Ungchusak, W. Sittitrai, et al. (1998). “Thailand: Lessons from a strong national response to HIV/AIDS.” Aids 12(Suppl B): S123-35. (Original not available electronically: alternative material here.

Pickering, H., J. Todd, D. Dunn, et al. (1992). “Prostitutes and their clients: a Gambian survey.” Soc Sci Med 34(1): 75-88.

Pisani, E. (2001). HIV in the 21st Century: Implications for UNICEF. New York, UNICEF. (.pdf)

Pisani, E., Dadun, P. K. Sucahya, et al. (2003a). “Sexual behavior among injection drug users in 3 indonesian cities carries a high potential for HIV spread to noninjectors.” J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 34(4): 403-6.

Pisani, E., G. P. Garnett, N. C. Grassly, et al. (2003b). “Back to basics in HIV prevention: focus on exposure.” BMJ 326(7403): 1384-7.

Pisani, E., P. Girault, M. Gultom, et al. (2004). “HIV, syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia.” Sex Transm Infect 80(6): 536-540.

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